Social Science


"The goal is to maximize value."


"Value is defined as the sum total of all the future benefits and losses to infinity in time."


"The solution to the economy can be summarized in one word."


"Everyone should stay home and think, and until the solution to rational decision making is found, then one should speak."


"Evil is created as a temporary survival mechanism for the weak to compete against the strong."

Post-Science Buddhism

"Pain and suffering are lessons on the laws of nature and on our design specification in the absence of our creators. The boundary of the endless bitter ocean is defined by the infinite spreadsheet."


"Reality is difficult enough to deal without the unrealistic intrusions of superstitions, which could interfere with probability."

Permanent Entities

"In comparison to permanent entities, all the current temporary creations are valueless. Examples of permanent entities are land and knowledge.

Legal System

"All laws of nature are discovered and non-violable; all the current legal laws are man-made and need to be enforced. Man-made laws should be based on laws of nature; otherwise, they will come into conflict with laws of nature."

Post-Science And Religion

Post-science arrives at the same conclusions as many religions. However, current religious teachings are based on extraordinary perception, and post-science is based on thorough analysis. Our current world is dominated by the scientific culture, which is largely based on analysis. Thus, post-science, in essence, simply attempts to update religion to the scientific standard. In fact, post-science deals with knowledge beyond (physical) science, namely, social and life sciences. It sets a standard of rigor higher than that of physical science. And, interestingly, discoveries in post-science requires both the analytic and the perceptive abilities. Ultimately, post-science should merge with religion and should update religion from being based on perception to being based on analysis. According to the most advanced philosophy, science is also a religion. In this sense, science complement the old religions with its discoveries of physical laws of nature, and post-science, which includes all the laws in physical science, compliments religions with mainly laws of nature in social and life sciences.

Two major conclusions of post-science in relation to religion are (1) All the laws of nature must be discovered and observed because they are time-invariant and non-violable and (2) The design specifications of our creators should be observed, as a driver of a car must observe the design specifications of the car manufacturer. Regarding (1), post-science discovers a major laws of nature in social science in the form of an infinite spreadsheet, and for (2), post-science offers analytic evidence of creation by discovering the process of complete automation, which characterizes life.

In practice, post-science concludes that the meaning of life is its value, which can only be determined by the infinite spreadsheet. Also, post-science realizes that the ultimate purpose of our existence is self-creation, for what we self-create will be able to do anything we can do. Furthermore, when we can create ourselves, all our design specifications will be known, whereby our suffering due to diseases and violations of our design specifications will be minimized, and the value or the enjoyment of our lives or can be maximized. The meaning of life and the purpose of existence are often in conflict. Our enjoyment of life could be reduced by our extremely difficult duty of self-creation. Thus, a rational society must reward appropriately those who sacrifice their enjoyment of life in the search of knowledge which will fulfill the universal goal of self-creation.

Replacing Peer Review Process By Infinite Spreadsheet Valuation System
Post-Science Institute

A rational decision should be made based on all the future consequences of the decision, not based on comparisons to past decisions, although past data provides time-invariant data for most of the inputs for the decision. A decision, as a price, is a time-variant quantity, which changes continually with changing future expectations to infinity in time, and whose correctness generally cannot be empirically re-verified because the infinite future never arrives. It should be rigorously observed that time-invariant quantities and only time-invariant quantities, by definition, remained the same in time and can be obtained directly by the comparison method. The peer review process is a comparison method, which uses the present and the past data for decision making. On the other hand, the Infinite Spreadsheet Valuation System which calculated the price or value based on all the future consequences affecting the value extending to infinity in time.

should be recognize that truly original ideas should have no peers. It is imperative for the growth of original ideas that a valuation process replaces the peer review process, which is a major hindrance to knowledge progress because it defends the status quo and the establishment. In particular, the valuation of new knowledge, or of policies, should replace the democratic process of voting by peers for determining the acceptance of solutions in science and in post-science, which deals mainly with the infinite reality in its entirety, instead of the mostly partial considerations of reality in science. The peer review process follows the general principle of empirical verification, in which future occurrences are predicted on the basis of past observations. Empirical verification is only possible when there is a deterministic system, which is represented by an equal number of equations and unknowns, and in which a deterministic set of data can be transported from the past into the future. Value is defined in post-science as the sum total of all the future benefits and losses to infinity in time. Since infinity never arrives, a deterministic set of past data in the determination of value can never be collected for empirical verification. Physical science deals almost exclusively with time-invariant quantities, which are subject to empirical verification, but social science, being based mainly on the determination of value, contains time-variant quantities, such as prices, plans, decisions, which never stay the same, because they change continually with changes in future expectations, to infinity in time. One of the major demonstrations of rational decision making based on valuation, instead of on voting or the peer review process, is the post-science solution to stock valuation, which is fully displayed and disclosed on the post-science web site The valuation system for research projects, as well as for real estates and businesses, is far simpler than the stock valuation system and has been amply market tested. decades.

Infinite Spreadsheet demands that the future expectations in decision making, planning, and valuation be fully disclosed to infinity in time. The full disclosure of the expectations, such as all the inputs from now to the infinity future for price determination, will allow the full accountability of the expectations in the future. On the other hand, all the decisions, plans, and valuations of our current society are based on the finite spreadsheet, which hides material facts beyond the finite time and, therefore, should be considered illegal. Additionally, the finite spreadsheet is a mathematically non-deterministic and non-applicable arbitrary system, in which the number of equations is not equal to the number of unknowns, resulting, thus, in arbitrary results.

June of 2000, the patent on the Infinite Spreadsheet "Quantitative Supply And Demand Model Based On Infinite spreadsheet" (Pat. No. 6,078,901) has been officially issued. Henceforth, the Infinite Spreadsheet should replace the finite spreadsheet and full disclosure should replace partial disclosure, wherever it is possible, especially, in real estate, stock, business, and project valuations. The full disclosure includes the methodology, all the equations, and all the inputs extending to infinity in time. In practice, the purpose of full disclosure in the Infinite Spreadsheet is to enable full accountability in the future. The patent approval of the Infinite Spreadsheet, which is based on mathematics and is an unbreakable law of nature in social science, is a major historical step toward rationality. Particularly, after its application to real estate and stock valuations, the Infinite Spreadsheet Valuation System could be used immediately to quantity utility in the patent approval process. In advancing the rationalistic tradition, Post-Science Institute will guide the human civilization from the Age of Science, which started about five hundred years ago, to the Age of Social Science, which will probably occupy the next five hundred years.

Should "UNDER GOD" be removed from the Pledge of Allegiance ?

(A general comment from PSI on government and SEC)

Some, especially, physical scientists, may find a discussion on God frivolous. However, Post-Science Institute (PSI) believes that the debate opens up fundamental questions about our government and offers an opportunity to reexamine the state of human knowledge. PSI suggests that "under God" be replaced by "under God and laws of nature" because the limits of our freedom are defined by the laws of nature and the design specifications of the designers, e.g. God. Example of the laws of nature are logic, mathematics, and gravitation, which are never violated and whose enforcement is automatic. Man-made regulations, manuals of automobiles, and knowledge of living organisms, including that of humans, give the design specifications of the designers. PSI deals with laws of nature in physical and social sciences, which constraint the behavior of materials and humans, and with complete automation, a design specification which characterize life and should be, but is not, a design constraint in computer science.

The United States of America has a representative government formed by democratic elections. The elected public officials must operate under the US Constitution, which is interpreted by the US Supreme Court. But, where are the laws of nature in the US Constitution ? Have the physical laws of nature proven themselves to be more reliable, admittedly less relevant, than any man-made laws ? The laws of nature are non-violable and, therefore, design specifications, including man-made laws, must not contradict them.

Based on its newly discovered laws of nature in physical and social science , PSI suggests that the Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the US Patent Office and/or other knowledge organizations with solutions to the stock market join force in discovering, interpreting, and enforcing the laws of nature guiding the stock market, as the Supreme Court interprets the US Constitution, which is consisted of man-made laws and would be wrong if the man-made laws are in conflict with the corresponding laws of nature. In addition to the US Supreme Court, the highest decision-making authority of the land should lie with knowledge organizations which interpret the laws of nature and the design specifications of our creators.

The United States of America is a free country. The word "free" in free country, also in free market, free society, free press, etc., endorsed the deregulation of man-made laws, and also of rules, customs, traditions, etc. which are not based on the laws of nature and which need to be enforced by an executive branch, such as SEC. On the other hand, the laws of nature, such as gravitation, need no enforcement; its punishment is automatic. For example, since only less than 1% of the public companies has been found unethical, over 99%, or almost all, of the stock investors, who lose money in the current stock market, are punished by the laws of nature. Thus, it should be the responsibility of SEC to find out what are the laws of nature which regulate the stock market and to warn the stock investors not to violate them.

It would be very difficult for individual stock investor to discover or even identify the laws of nature governing the stock market or to analyze all the stocks. The purpose of a public entity or a governmental agency is for all the people to work collectively for the public good. Over half of the US population is involved directly or indirectly in stock investment. Stock analysis is most efficiently carried out and distributed by one centralized agency, for the laws of nature are the same regardless who does if. The analysis method and results should be distributed free to the public, which funds the SEC through taxes.

The stock market challenges the human intellect. It is one of the most complex, but also the most well-defined, problems in social science. From the viewpoint of post-science, the stock market has provided data for all the variables, including, particularly, the price or quote, except one, the rate of return on investment. Due to its nearly complete flexibility, the stock market seems to be constrained only by the laws of natural, which are non-violable, by definition. SEC should take over the responsibility of searching and interpreting the laws of nature governing the stock market with the assistance of knowledge organizations, particularly, the US Patent Office, which should search for and issue patents for the solutions to stock prediction.

This time, a discussion in social science and about God should produce concrete results, for, at least, one stock solution was endorsed by the 1997 Nobel Committee in economics and another one by the Patent Office in 2000. The said patent solution is disclosed by PSI in the patent "Quantitative Supply And Demand Model Based On Infinite Spreadsheet" (Pat. No. 6,0789,01) and is demonstrated in the Post-Science web site As a final note, PSI has found that the laws of nature, such as the Infinite Spreadsheet and the gambler's law (Probability of A gambler winning with a amount of money against B gambler with b amount of money = a / (a + b), which is a linear function satisfying the requirement of the equivalence of chances), are far more stringent than all the man-made regulations put together by SEC. Thus, at last, we see the visions of two opposing great economic thinkers merge; we have the convergence of the belief of rational planning based on the laws of nature in social science by Karl Marx, who, unfortunately, had never discovered any law of nature in social science, and the warning of man-made regulations by Milton Friedman, who had discovered one of the most important laws of nature in social science, that which governs inflation: Price x Quantity = Velocity of Circulation of Money x Broad Money Supply, which no economic policy maker of any government in the world dares to ignore. 8/05/2002 by Post-Science Institute

Post-Science Proposal On Governmental Reform

A Knowledge-Led Social System

(Techno-Democratic Government)

Post-science deals with the mainstream knowledge of the future and with knowledge beyond science. It currently contains the solutions in value, software, and touch. Thus, Post-Science Institute sees the current society from the perspective of the knowledge of the future, not the future from the perspective of the knowledge of the present. It holds the patents "Quantitative Supply And Demand Model Based On Infinite spreadsheet" (Patent No. 6.078.901) and "Completely Automated And Self-generating Software System" (Patent No. 5,485,601) and the planned patent "Jumpulse Devices For Eliminating Bounce In Collision" which is based on the solution to touch, a problem which has been unsolved, and even unrecognized, for three hundred years since Newton, and could be a major cause of the failure of Japan's Sixth Generation Computer Science, Robotics. Believing that our society progresses mainly through the advancement in knowledge, Post-Science Institute would like to propose a new conceptual design of a knowledge-led social system, a Techno-Democratic Government in which knowledge or is above individuals, who are above the government, which, in turn, represents the majority view of the people.

We must not allow the government or the opinion of the majority to suffocate individual initiatives and innovations, or the individual, who is the source of new knowledge and the unit of creation. The current two main roles of the government, in representing the people and in representing knowledge, must be reduced to just the one in representing the people, which are individuals acting as a whole under the leadership of the government. Knowledge, consisting mainly of natural laws and design specifications based on these natural laws, in a Techno-Democratic Government should have the highest authority.

Science is correct but not as relevant as pre-science, which, however, is not quite correct. Post-science is both correct and relevant. Today, our world is led by politicians, not knowledge, mainly because of the lack of relevant knowledge. In a Techno-Democratic Government, knowledge in the form of laws of nature and natural design specifications, such as the condition of complete automation in the above patent, should lead our society. Post-science has made several relevant contributions in knowledge. In addition to the Infinite Spreadsheet above, the time-invariant velocity of circulation of broad money supply has been empirically verified and could be a non-violable law of nature which is above the individual. Interestingly, the free market corresponds to the individual in the Techno-Democratic Government. In a free market, the market participants, not the government, regulate businesses. The market participant is the individual. Furthermore, the individual, as well as the government, should be as informed and as knowledgeable as possible. The free market should be consisted of the individual and the government, all of which are guided by knowledge.

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